150 years ago, the summit of the Matterhorn, 4478m, was trodden for the very first time. The Matterhorn, through its performance and its tragic end, marks the end of the golden age of mountaineering, a period during which man changed his vision of the mountain and in particular of the Alps. This period of the golden age is marked by the association of men and summits. The mountain became a game, a sport, a source of competition, and of exploration. How did this uncontrollable attraction between these pioneers and these summits open, how did they achieve these feats, who are they really, what has changed for man and for mountaineering? What about today ?